Kurga itself broke away from the New Shi'ar Imperium in Year 11,111 of the New Shi'ar Calendar after a fanatical splinter sect from the official Church of the True God seized power on Kurga and sucessfully repelled efforts by the Imperial Guard to retake Kurga.
Over the recent centuries, the Kurgan Caliphate has conquered planets and solar systems, and forcibly converted both Shi'ar and non-Shi'ar to it's own religion.
Leadership in the Caliphate is vested in the Caliph, who is considered the solely appointed representative of the Caliphate's monotheistic deity. The Caliph is aided by an assembly of religious leaders, military officers, and governmental civil servants called the Majlis.
In the Pocket Universe in Year 12,600, the Caliphate still subjected the so-called heretics living in their portion of the known universe to social and political discrimination who refused to convert to the Caliphate's version of True God worship, but heretics were no longer killed for simply refusing to convert, as had sometimes occurred in past centuries.